THE MEMORY CODE. ORAL CULTURES
SERIAL POSITION EFFECT
Serial position effect is the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst.
Generation identity occurs when an individual recognises that they are part of a particular social subgroup, a culturalgeneration, and concern themselves with the internalization of external features of the world. The reminiscence bump occurs during a period of life where people form their individual and generational identity. The earlier years of the reminiscence bump coincide with the formation of generation identity, while the later years coincide with the formation of adult identity.
The influence of generation identity on the reminiscence bump can be attributed to the idea that all members of the subgroup are likely to have memories of similar types of experiences. Evidence attesting to the influence of generation identity on the reminiscence bump has been witnessed in populations that have experience with traumatic events. In 1999, researchers compared younger and older groups of Bangladeshis. The younger group (ages 20–42) showed the usual increase in memories during the reminiscence bump while the older group (ages 46–86) showed a second increase in memories between the ages of 35 and 55. The second bump experienced by the older group corresponded to the period of the Bangladesh Liberation War. The two generations showed similar patterns and timing of memory recall within their own subgroup, suggesting that they did have similar experiences, either living or not living through the war. This finding may suggests that each generation remember personal events and generational events.
Memory for public events and private events
Researchers have studied different types of memories in order to find some clues into how the reminiscence bump works and how memories are stored and retrieved. Participants were asked to retrieve memories that were classified as either public or private to try to find differences in terms of when these memories were stored. Public events are events that everyone living at the time know about and are exposed to (political, war/murder, sports/entertainment or news events), but private events are only experienced by the individual (relationships, births/deaths, work/education, home/leisure, illness and religion). When recalling public events, participants were between ages 10 and 19; and when recalling private events, participants were between 20 and 29. Researchers suggest that public events are recalled at an earlier age because individuals are gaining a sense of generational identity. People are starting to create their own beliefs and their individual identity, so these experiences are being rehearsed, practiced and stored in long-term memory. Private events are recalled later because this is when individuals are developing intimate relationship. Private events are more easily stored and recalled because they are unique to each person and are likely occurring without any outside influence.
Memory for happy and sad events
Different emotions have been shown to affect memory. Life events that have stronger emotions attached will be remembered more vividly. In studies looking at emotional events and the reminiscence bump, older adults tend to remember more positive events than younger adults. Typically, during the reminiscence bump only happy memories and memories of important events are recalled. It is postulated that sad events are easier to forget because there may be an increased motivation to forget them. Conversely, individuals are more likely to recall and relive happy events because they produced pleasurable memories. A second explanation suggests that remembering positive events can help regulate emotions and even enhance moods. It is also possible to regulate emotions through remembering negative events and comparing these events to present positive events. Positive or negative events can also be used to share life experiences with others and compare life events.
Flashbulb memory and the reminiscence bump
Flashbulb memory occurs when a very vivid memory of a traumatic, emotional, or significant event is recalled.Researchers typically use public events such as the John F. Kennedy assassination and 9/11 as cues when studying flashbulb memories. Participants are asked to recall very specific information such as where they were, how they felt, and what they were doing when the event was taking place. Memories of these events are easily recalled and the individual believes their account of the event to be perfectly accurate.
These memories have been tested in different ways, including measuring the ability to recall details of the event and the impact of additional cues on the recall of the event. Denver, Lane and Cherry found that flashbulb memories that took place in the reminiscence bump were exceptionally vivid and easily accessible. It is suggested that the flashbulb memories encoded during the reminiscence bump are so vivid because the events happened during a time of identity formation and peak brain function. Additionally, these events are recalled well because they undergo more rehearsal due to their serious nature and frequent discussion.
FIONA TAN. RISE AND FALL
This column will change your life: the art of forgetting
From «The Guardian»
The good news, as reported in Scientific American Mind, is that you can. Attempting not to think about something can notoriously have the opposite effect – the «don’t think of a white bear!» problem – but research showssuppression gets better with practice and substituting a thought with another thought can work well, too. Intriguingly, those who are best at deliberate forgetting are those who are also best at remembering things. (People with ADHD are worse at it.) A sharp and healthy mind is one that can remember and forget. Distracting yourself is another technique that gets a bad rap but that can be similarly effective: in one study, having to press a button each time a word-cue appeared led to as much forgetting as deliberately trying to block it. «Action interferes with recollection,» as one researcher put it. Want to forget your screw-up at work today? Cook a complex dinner tonight.
As a society, argues internet scholar Viktor Mayer-Schonberger, we’re getting worse at forgetting, thanks to the web: Amazon, Google and Facebook remember everything you use them for, for ever. In his book Delete, he calls for legal efforts to change the default, so that unless you choose otherwise, your online activities will eventually slip into the memory hole. It’ll never happen. But it’s a welcome intervention in the polarised debate between advocates of privacy and publicness. Perhaps «living in public» in the digital era would be less unsettling if we could trust that the web – like an optimally functioning human mind, rather than one with a disorder such as Price’s – might eventually also forget.