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The Dialogic Imagination. M. M. Bakhtin

In The Dialogic Imagination, Bakhtin defines the Chronotope:

We will give the name chronotope (literally, «time space») to the intrinsic connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships that are artistically expressed in literature. This term [space-time] is employed in mathematics, and was introduced as part of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. The special meaning it has in relativity theory is not important for our purposes; we are borrowing it for literary criticism almost as a metaphor (almost, but not entirely). What counts for us is the fact that it expresses the inseparability of space and time (time as the fourth dimension of space). We understand the chronotope as a formally constitutive category of literature; we will not deal with the chronotope in other areas of culture.’ In the literary artistic chronotope, spatial and temporal indicators are fused into one carefully thought-out, concrete whole. Time, as it were, thickens, takes on flesh, becomes artistically visible; likewise, space becomes charged and responsive to the movements of time, plot and history. This intersection of axes and fusion of indicators characterizes the artistic chronotope.

The chronotope in literature has an intrinsic generic significance. It can even be said that it is precisely the chronotope that defines genre and generic distinctions, for in literature the primary category in the chronotope is time. The chronotope as a formally constitutive category determines to a significant degree the image of man in literature as well. The image of man is always intrinsically chronotopic.







A stopwatch on the brain’s perception of time

«…But, «quite unexpectedly, sadness does not affect our perception of time, no doubt because the emotion felt when watching a sad film is not strong enough to slow down physiological functions,» Droit-Volet explains. However, she adds, work is needed on the profound sadness associated with periods of severe depression. Her team is currently looking at whether the internal clock may slow down in healthy subjects who practise meditation and relaxation. Is it possible they may step outside time in this state?»



Un hipermedia narrativo metamórfico y multiforme

De la naturaleza de los vacíos es de donde surge la interacción entre el texto y su lector-usuario
por lo que se les puede atribuir varias funciones. Primero, en la experiencia del lector-usuario
de los segmentos textuales, el vacío alude a la conexión suspendida o potencial codificada en el
texto mismo, o sea al posible enlace entre los diferentes segmentos textuales. Segundo, el vacío
también puede referirse a la perspectiva divagante del sujeto-lector (“the reader’s wandering
viewpoint”, para Iser). Esta perspectiva sugiere que la totalidad del texto no se percibe de una
sola vez, sino que surge de diferentes y consecutivas fases de lectura. La tercera función surge
al establecerse una conexión entre el primer vacío con el segundo. Este último tipo de vacío es
el que le permite al lector-usuario instaurar conexiones entre los diferentes segmentos textuales.
Los vacíos se convierten en guías en la producción del texto porque el sistema (el texto) no los
llena, sino que sólo pueden ser “completados” por otro sistema (el lector-usuario) (Iser,
En un hipertexto, sin embargo, el texto no llena los vacíos porque éste se encuentra fragmentado
y todos sus segmentos textuales están flotando, ocupando puntos espaciotemporales simultáneos
en el hiperespacio. Es al lector-usuario a quien le corresponde establecer las relaciones entre las
lexias textuales utilizando los hiperenlaces como guías y así establecer secuencias narrativas
posibles en su proceso de interpretación de la obra.